ABG – Hi CO2 = Acidosis. Lo CO2 = Alkalosis i.e. co2 is like anti-bicarb.

Site, Size, Shape, Surface, Skin, Scar. Tenderness, Temperature, Transillumination. 
ROME – Resp opp, Metabolic equal. Direction of pH and CO2/HCO3.
Big spleen = Malaria/cMl/Myelofibrosis.

High Anion Gap: KUSSMAL

KUSSMAL:
– dKA
– Uraemia
– Salicylates
– Sepsis
– Methanol
– Alcoholic ketoacidosis
– Lactate.

OR:

CAT MUD PILES.

C – CO/HCN; A – Alcoholic ketoacidosis; T – Toluene

Methanol
Uraemia
DKA

Paraldehyde
Isoniazid
Etyhlene glycol
Salicylates

Normal anion gap – USED CARB – i.e. used up bicarb. RTA/DIARRHOEA/FISTULA!

USED CARP

U = Ureteroenterostomy
S = Small bowel fistula
E = Extra chloride
D = Diarrhea

C = Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
A = Adrenal insufficiency/Acetazolamide/Addison’s
R = Renal tubular acidosis
P = Pancreatic fistula

Lots of saline can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap

Not sure about this:

Respiratory if pH is up and Paco2 is down or if pH down and Paco2 is up
Metabolic if pH and HCO3 are both up or if pH and HCO3 are both down
Compensating if Paco2 and HCO3 both up or if pH and Hco3 both are down
Mixed if Paco2 up and HCO3down or if Paco2 down and HCO3 is up

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