Site, Size, Shape, Surface, Skin, Scar. Tenderness, Temperature, Transillumination.
ROME – Resp opp, Metabolic equal. Direction of pH and CO2/HCO3.
Big spleen = Malaria/cMl/Myelofibrosis.
High Anion Gap: KUSSMAL
– Alcoholic ketoacidosis
CAT MUD PILES.
C – CO/HCN; A – Alcoholic ketoacidosis; T – Toluene
Normal anion gap – USED CARB – i.e. used up bicarb. RTA/DIARRHOEA/FISTULA!
U = Ureteroenterostomy
S = Small bowel fistula
E = Extra chloride
D = Diarrhea
C = Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
A = Adrenal insufficiency/Acetazolamide/Addison’s
R = Renal tubular acidosis
P = Pancreatic fistula
Lots of saline can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap
Not sure about this:
Respiratory if pH is up and Paco2 is down or if pH down and Paco2 is up
Metabolic if pH and HCO3 are both up or if pH and HCO3 are both down
Compensating if Paco2 and HCO3 both up or if pH and Hco3 both are down
Mixed if Paco2 up and HCO3down or if Paco2 down and HCO3 is up